A Value Line ascertains students' opinions in a quick and visual way by asking them to line up according to how strongly they agree or disagree with a statement or proposition. For example, instructors may ask students to respond to the following statements:
Clear instructions reinforced by visual aids are particularly important for implementation of a Value Line because many students are unaccustomed to active learning that involves active movement.
To initiate the structure, teachers should show the students the statement plus a five point Likert scale with the endpoints labeled “strongly agree” and “strongly disagree.” They then ask students, after a moment of "think time," to choose the number that best describes their position on the issue.
Another approach might be to have students select numbers based on their proficiency or comfort level with specific topics or skills, such as preparing and giving oral presentations.
To avoid indecisiveness, it is a good idea to have the students jot down theirnumber before the next step. Instructors next ask students who have chosen "one" to stand at a designated point along the wall of the room. The students who have chosen "two" follow them, and so forth until all students are lined up. It is important to stretch the line sufficiently so that students are not bunched together in large clumps.
After the students have formed a continuous line based on their responses to the prompt, form heterogeneous groups. Here’s an easy way to do that. First, divide the number of students in the class by the number of students you want in each group. Then, have the students count off by that number, and sort themselves into groups accordingly. For example, if I have 40 students in my class andwant them to work in groups of 4, I ask them to count to 10, starting at oneend of the line, and ask the 11th student to begin again at 1. Any students coming late to class join a team as an additional member.
Pairing students of opposing viewpoints allows them to stretch their perspectives and to learn to examine at least two sides of an issue.
To follow up on any of these ideas, please contact me at email@example.com. This Weekly Teaching Note was adapted from a contribution to the Teaching and Learning Writing Consortium sponsored by Western Kentucky University.
Teaching and Learning Center
University of Texas at San Antonio
This system would be much fairer because an administrative assistant and a faculty member parking in the same designated area, such as the parking garages, would not pay the same amount.
Often the people who are carrying the heaviest burdens end up parking the furthest away. This would give people in lower pay grades a better opportunity to afford closer parking.
Some faculty and administrators would resist any changes that might increase their parking fees.
It would be very complex to administer because each designated parking area would have to have various levels of fees.
Parking fees constitute a major source of revenue for the university, so efforts to reduce overall costs could negatively impact the budget.
A feasibility study would be needed
The university would need to be able to prevent people from giving their parking passes to others.
Last week’s Teaching Note described one way to motivate students to renew their efforts after a poor result on the first exam. I heard from many of you in response, and you described the strategies you use. Here are several more ideas, from your colleagues:
I teach a 100-level course that many students do not look forward to taking. It is an introduction to both chemistry and physics and is a requirement for some non-science majors. Most of my students are freshmen or sophomores, many of whom are weak in science and math and therefore are anxious about this class. Compounding their weaknesses in math and science, some students do not have effective study habits, frequently do not do the homework and practice problems, and do not seek free tutoring assistance or extra help from me. As a result, a number of students do not do as well on the first test as they would like.
Yesterday, the Center for Teaching and Learning hosted a workshop on digital tools that can be used to enhance learning. Four faculty members with expertise in Blackboard (Bb) and Google Apps shared some strategies they use to increase student engagement and learning and answered questions from the other participants about how to achieve certain pedagogical goals using these tools. Here, I share some of the ideas generated at the workshop. Thanks to Dan Quigley, College of Arts and Sciences, and to Kate O’Hara, Stan Silverman, and Mike Uttendorfer, all in the School of Education, for sharing their experiences.
Our panelists prefer Google Apps as a tool for facilitating group work. Do you want your students to write a paper or create a presentation collaboratively? Edit one another’s writing? Collect and analyze data? Google Sites or Google Documents can be used to organize contributions from multiple students, much as you might use the wiki tool in Blackboard. Google Docs includes a word processor, a presentation tool, a spreadsheet, and a form generator that deposits information into a spreadsheet.
Google Forms are especially versatile – the four faculty on the panel use the tool for attendance, for gathering information in one place (e.g., students' choice of topics for papers), for quizzes and anonymous surveys, and as a way for students to get to know one another. This last technique is employed by Stan Silverman, who asks students to answer a series of questions about themselves. All the students can view each others' responses on the spreadsheet, and Stan uses their responses to selected questions in the survey as a way to sort his students into groups.
Blackboard does have tools for groups, and many of those tools can link directly to the grade center. However, as Mike Uttendorfer pointed out, if students are sharing documents back and forth the groups tool in Bb will result in multiple copies of a document at different stages of completion, while Google Apps will maintain a single document, with a history of changes and the ability to revert to an earlier version.
One innovative idea for integrating the two suites of tools is to embed the Google documents, drawings, forms, etc. on a content page in Bb. Kate O’Hara, who shared this idea, said it makes the Bb pages more visually appealing to students, and the students can use Google Apps from within the Bb environment. This strategy has the added advantage of giving the student a wider variety of tools to use, and familiarity with Google Apps gives them a skill they can use in a professional setting.
One of the recurring themes during the workshop was how to organize course materials. Mike Uttendorfer does this within Bb by creating a content page for each week/unit of the course, and giving that page a consistent structure each week. The page starts with a weekly 'roadmap' that includes the learning objectives, activities, resources, and approximate time required to complete each task. Folders on the page keep resource materials and activities grouped together, and each unit ends with a self-assessment for the students, so they can gauge their mastery of the material. Frequent use of anonymous surveys helps Mike gather feedback about the course design and any difficulties the students might be having with the material.
If a picture is worth a thousand words, then a video is worth an essay. Several of the faculty use short screencasts to give students a tour of the virtual environment, directions on how to do things, feedback on student work, and to convey content. Dan Quigley asks his students to use a free screencasting tool (two popular tools are Jing – http://www.jingproject.com – and Screencast-O-Matic – http://www.screencast-o-matic.com) to provide narration for a slide presentation, as a way to move student presentations online. It is a good idea to provide students with several options when using this approach, because the computers they have at home are going to have a range of ability with respect to the technologies they can support.
A third thread to the conversation was synchronous activities. Students learn best with a blend of asynchronous and synchronous activities – regardless of whether the synchronous activities occur online or in person – especially when the learning that happens in one venue is reinforced in the other. We had a wide-ranging discussion of different tools that are available, each of which has different strengths and limitations. Dan Quigley made an excellent point: when starting out, keep your (and your students') expectations realistic. If you want to experiment with a synchronous online format like a webinar, it might be best to do so as an enhancement to a course that meets in person – that way if the technology doesn't work as advertised, you have the regular class meeting as a backup.
As you can see, there are lots of choices out there. Ultimately, the best choice is the one that allows you to answer “yes” to these questions: